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Abstract class in Java


A class that is declared with abstract keyword, is known as abstract class in java. It can have abstract and non-abstract methods.


(method with body)

Before learning java abstract class, let's understand the abstraction in java first.

Abstraction in Java


Abstraction is a process of hiding the implementation details and showing only functionality to the user.

Another way, it shows only important things to the user and hides the internal details for example sending sms, you just type the text and send the message. You don't know the internal processing about the message delivery.

Abstraction lets you focus on what the object does instead of how it does it.

Ways to achieve Abstraction

There are two ways to achieve abstraction in java.

1. Abstract class (0 to 100%)

2. Interface (100%)

Abstract class in Java

A class that is declared as abstract is known as abstract class. It needs to be extended and its method implemented. It cannot be instantiated.

Example abstract class

abstract class A{}

abstract method

A method that is declared as abstract and does not have implementation is known as abstract method.

Example abstract method

abstract void printStatus();//no body and abstract

Example of abstract class that has abstract method

In this example, Bike the abstract class that contains only one abstract method run. It implementation is provided by the Honda class.

abstract class Bike{
abstract void run();
}
class Honda4 extends Bike{
void run(){
System.out.println("running safely..");
}
public static void main(String args[]){
Bike obj = new Honda4();
obj.run();
}
}

Output:running safely


Understanding the real scenario of abstract class

In this example, Shape is the abstract class, its implementation is provided by the Rectangle and Circle classes. Mostly, we don't know about the implementation class (i.e. hidden to the end user) and object of the implementation class is provided by the factory method.

A factory method is the method that returns the instance of the class. We will learn about the factory method later.

]

In this example, if you create the instance of Rectangle class, draw() method of Rectangle class will be invoked.

File: TestAbstraction1.java

abstract class Shape{
abstract void draw();
}
//In real scenario, implementation is provided by others i.e. unknown by end user
class Rectangle extends Shape{
void draw(){System.out.println("drawing rectangle");}
}
class Circle1 extends Shape{
void draw(){System.out.println("drawing circle");}
}
//In real scenario, method is called by programmer or user
class TestAbstraction1{
public static void main(String args[]){
Shape s=new Circle1();//In a real scenario, object is provided through method, e.g., getShape() method
s.draw();
}
}


Output: drawing circle

Another example of abstract class in java

File: TestBank.java

abstract class Bank{
abstract int getRateOfInterest();
}
class SBI extends Bank{
int getRateOfInterest(){return 7;}
}
class PNB extends Bank{
int getRateOfInterest(){return 8;}
}
class TestBank{
public static void main(String args[]){
Bank b;
b=new SBI();
System.out.println("Rate of Interest is: "+b.getRateOfInterest()+" %");
b=new PNB();
System.out.println("Rate of Interest is: "+b.getRateOfInterest()+" %");
}
}


Output: Rate of Interest is: 7 %
Rate of Interest is: 8 %

Abstract class having constructor, data member, methods etc.

An abstract class can have data member, abstract method, method body, constructor and even main() method.

File: TestAbstraction.java

package com.ashu;
abstract class Vehicle{
int no_of_typer;
abstract void drive();
abstract void start();
}
class Car extends Vehicle{
void drive(){
no_of_typer= 4;
System.out.println("Its long drive");
}
void start(){
System.out.println("start with key");
}
}
class Bike extends Vehicle{
void drive(){
no_of_typer= 3;
System.out.println("Its long drive so far");
}
void start(){
System.out.println("start with kick");
}

}
public class TestAbstraction {
public static void main(String[] args) {
Vehicle v =new Bike();
v.drive();
v.start();
Vehicle v1 = new Car();
v1.start();
v.drive();
}
}


Output: Its long drive so far
start with kick
start with key
Its long drive so far

Rule: If you are extending any abstract class that have abstract method, you must either provide the implementation of the method or make this class abstract.

Another real scenario of abstract class

The abstract class can also be used to provide some implementation of the interface. In such case, the end user may not be forced to override all the methods of the interface.

Note: If you are beginner to java, learn interface first and skip this example.

package com.ashu;
interface Aest{
void a();
void b();
void c();
void d();
}
abstract class Best implements Aest{
public void c(){
System.out.println("I am c");
}
}
class M extends Best{
public void a(){
System.out.println("I am a");
}
public void b(){
System.out.println("I am b");
}
public void d(){
System.out.println("I am d");
}
}
public class InterfaceAbstractionDemo {
public static void main(String args[]){
Aest a=new M();
a.a();
a.b();
a.c();
a.d();
}
}


Output: I am a
I am b
I am c
I am d

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